The study aims at examining the effects of principal leadership and school autonomy on students' reading literacy performance in Korea, Mexico and Turkey according to the PISA 2012 results. This is a correlational research study. The sample covers 15 year-old students taking PISA 2012 exam in Korea, Mexico and Turkey. The data of the study was comprised of the students' reading literacy performance and the questionnaire that the school principals responded in Korea, Mexico and Turkey in PISA 2012. The study revealed that school principals in Mexico and Turkey showed leadership more frequently than the ones in Korea. The study also indicated that both the principal leadership and the school autonomy had a statistically significant effect on students' reading performance and these are the predictors of students reading performance in Korea, Mexico and Turkey.