© 2017, Ankara University. All rights reserved.The purpose of this study is to determine features regarding drive and motivation predicting mathematics literacy of Turkish and Vietnamese students within the context of PISA 2012. The sample of this correlational study includes 4415 Turkish and 4433 Vietnamese students. Perseverance, openness to problem solving, locus of control, instrumental motivation to learn mathematics and interest in mathematics were considered as drive and motivation variables. To test measurement invariance Multigorup Confirmatory Factor Analysis and to determine the relationship between these variables and mathematics literacy Chaid Analysis were conducted. According to the results of Multigorup Confirmatory Factor Analysis, configural invariance models was built for only the factors "interest in mathematics", "opennes to problem solving" and "instrumental motivation". On the other hand, it was concluded that perceived control in school, attribuitions to failure and perseverance variables have not the same cultural structure in both countries. Moreover, Chaid analysis showed that openness to problem solving and interest in mathematics were explained mostly the mathematics literacy of Turkish and Vieatnames students. Besides, of all students being able to make real life connections, students who like mathematics were found to have the highest mathematics score. In this study, it was found that making connection to real life has an important role on mathematics achievement. Therefore, it is recommended that mathematics education programs should be developed to help students be able to make real life connections. To make this happen, several simulation activities can be provided to students.