Mobile virtual environments, with real-time 3D and 2D graphics, are now possible on smart phone and other camera-enabled devices. Using computer vision, the camera sensor can be treated as an input modality in applications by analyzing the incoming live video. We present our tracking algorithm and several mobile virtual environment and gaming prototypes including: a 3D first person shooter, a 2D puzzle game and a simple action game. Camera-based interaction provides a user experience that is not possible through traditional means, and maximizes the use of the limited display size. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006.