Modified Maxwell fish-eye approach for efficient coupler design by graded photonic crystals

Kurt H., Oner B., Turduev M., Giden I.

Optics Express, vol.20, no.20, pp.22018-22033, 2012 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 20 Issue: 20
  • Publication Date: 2012
  • Doi Number: 10.1364/oe.20.022018
  • Journal Name: Optics Express
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.22018-22033
  • TED University Affiliated: No


We present a novel design of two dimensional graded index medium that provides coupling of light with high coupling efficiency between two planar dielectric waveguides of different widths (15.46μm vs. 2.21μm). Poor light coupling performance of butt-coupler can be mitigated by implementing tapered coupler at the expense of long coupler section. In order to reduce coupling losses, a new coupling device approach based on graded index (GRIN) concept is proposed. The refractive index distribution is in the form of modified version of the Maxwell fish-eye lens. The inhomogeneous refractive index distribution is approximated by photonic crystals (PCs) such that the positions of each PC rods are appropriately arranged. Strong electric field focusing ability of the designed GRIN PC medium provides relatively high coupling efficiency that is around 90%. Spectral region corresponding to coupling efficiency over 75% has a bandwidth of Δω = 18.56% (284 nm). Finally, we discuss the durability of the proposed coupler against the lateral displacement and angular misalignment of output waveguides. © 2012 Optical Society of America.