Maximization of Underwater Sensor Networks Lifetime via Fountain Codes

Yıldız H. U.

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL INFORMATICS, vol.15, no.8, pp.4602-4613, 2019 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 15 Issue: 8
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.1109/tii.2019.2892866
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.4602-4613
  • Keywords: Automatic repeat request (ARQ), fountain codes (FCs), integer linear programming (ILP), network lifetime (NL), underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs), RELIABLE DATA TRANSFER, ALGORITHMS, TRANSMISSIONS, OPTIMIZATION
  • TED University Affiliated: Yes


The severe nature of underwater channel poses a great challenge for prolonging underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs) lifetime and achieving a reliable communication performance. Traditional approaches to improve the reliability such as automatic repeat request (ARQ) negatively affect the network lifetime (NL) due to energy dissipation caused by ARQ retransmission. A forward error correction (FEC) technique called fountain codes (FCs) can solve the energy efficiency problem of ARQ by transmitting both the original packet and some redundant packets to ensure a targeted reliability with few or no retransmissions. In this paper, we investigate performances of both traditional ARQ-and FC-based FECmethods in terms ofNL, end-to-end delay, energy consumption, and frame error rate (FER) for UASNs. In this context, we abstract energy dissipation characteristics of conventional ARQ-and FC-based FECmethod at the link-layer. We propose an integer linear programming (ILP) framework that maximizes the NL, which is operated on top of developed link-layer energy consumption models. Our results reveal that FC-based FEC methods can prolong the NL at a minimum of 16% while end-to-end delay, energy consumption, and FER can be reduced at least by 11%, 14%, and 9% as compared to classical ARQ, respectively.