This study explores the relationship between student characteristics (perception regarding peer bullying, students' confidence in mathematics, students' like learning mathematics and students valuing mathematics) which affect mathematics achievement of eighth grade students in Turkey and teacher characteristics (working conditions of teachers, teacher's emphasis on academic success and collaboration with colleagues in order to enhance teaching) which are dealt with at school level. In this correlational study, 141 teachers and 4498 students were included from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007 and 219 teachers and 6928 students were included from TIMSS 2011. Samples were created with the stratified sampling method. Data collection sources of the study consist of the mathematics achievement tests and student and teacher questionnaires that were used in TIMSS 2007 and 2011 assessments. Study data was analysed with the hierarchical linear modelling (HLM) method. Data for the study was analysed with four HLMs. These models are: (i) Random Effects One Way the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Model; (ii) Regression Model in Which Means are Outcomes; (iii) Random Coefficients Model; (iii) Constant and Slope Coefficients as Outcomes. As a result of the analysis conducted to examine the level of relationship of the features regarding mathematics achievement of students at student and school level and the state of these relations between TIMSS 2007-2011 applications, it was found that in both TIMSS periods, eighth grade students' mathematics achievements vary significantly among schools. According to the results of both 2007 and 2011 TIMSS, at school level, student's mathematics achievement has a positive and significant relationship with teacher's emphasis on the academic achievement variable. No significant relationship between students' mathematics achievement and teachers' working conditions and teachers' collaboration for improving teaching variables were found in the 2007 and 2011 assessments. Students' performances in TIMSS 2007 and 2011 mathematics exams have a significant relationship with students not being subjected to bullying at school and students' like learning mathematics variables on student level. Students' confidence in mathematics variable has a significant effect in achievements in 2011, which is not the case in 2007 and students valuing mathematics variable does not have a significant relationship with students' mathematics achievement in either year.