Psychometric Properties and Correlates of Precarious Manhood Beliefs in 62 Nations

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Bosson J. K., Jurek P., Vandello J. A., Kosakowska-Berezecka N., Olech M., Besta T., ...More

JOURNAL OF CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY, vol.52, no.3, pp.231-258, 2021 (SSCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 52 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1177/0022022121997997
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, ASSIA, IBZ Online, International Bibliography of Social Sciences, Periodicals Index Online, Applied Science & Technology Source, CINAHL, EBSCO Education Source, Index Islamicus, Linguistics & Language Behavior Abstracts, MLA - Modern Language Association Database, Psycinfo, Social services abstracts, Sociological abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.231-258
  • Keywords: psychometric isomorphism, precarious manhood beliefs, ambivalent sexism, ambivalence toward men
  • TED University Affiliated: No


Precarious manhood beliefs portray manhood, relative to womanhood, as a social status that is hard to earn, easy to lose, and proven via public action. Here, we present cross-cultural data on a brief measure of precarious manhood beliefs (the Precarious Manhood Beliefs scale [PMB]) that covaries meaningfully with other cross-culturally validated gender ideologies and with country-level indices of gender equality and human development. Using data from university samples in 62 countries across 13 world regions (N = 33,417), we demonstrate: (1) the psychometric isomorphism of the PMB (i.e., its comparability in meaning and statistical properties across the individual and country levels); (2) the PMB's distinctness from, and associations with, ambivalent sexism and ambivalence toward men; and (3) associations of the PMB with nation-level gender equality and human development. Findings are discussed in terms of their statistical and theoretical implications for understanding widely-held beliefs about the precariousness of the male gender role.