Using convolutional neural network and a single heartbeat for ecg biometric recognition

Alduwaile D. A., Islam M. S.

Entropy, vol.23, no.6, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 23 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/e23060733
  • Journal Name: Entropy
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, Communication Abstracts, INSPEC, Metadex, zbMATH, Directory of Open Access Journals, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: biometrics, deep learning, convolutional neural network, ECG signal, continuous wavelet transformation
  • TED University Affiliated: No


The electrocardiogram (ECG) signal has become a popular biometric modality due to characteristics that make it suitable for developing reliable authentication systems. However, the long segment of signal required for recognition is still one of the limitations of existing ECG biometric recognition methods and affects its acceptability as a biometric modality. This paper investigates how a short segment of an ECG signal can be effectively used for biometric recognition, using deep-learning techniques. A small convolutional neural network (CNN) is designed to achieve better generalization capability by entropy enhancement of a short segment of a heartbeat signal. Addition-ally, it investigates how various blind and feature‐dependent segments with different lengths affect the performance of the recognition system. Experiments were carried out on two databases for performance evaluation that included single and multisession records. In addition, a comparison was made between the performance of the proposed classifier and four well‐known CNN models: Goog‐ LeNet, ResNet, MobileNet and EfficientNet. Using a time–frequency domain representation of a short segment of an ECG signal around the R‐peak, the proposed model achieved an accuracy of 99.90% for PTB, 98.20% for the ECG‐ID mixed‐session, and 94.18% for ECG‐ID multisession da-tasets. Using the preprinted ResNet, we obtained 97.28% accuracy for 0.5‐second segments around the R‐peaks for ECG‐ID multisession datasets, outperforming existing methods. It was found that the time–frequency domain representation of a short segment of an ECG signal can be feasible for biometric recognition by achieving better accuracy and acceptability of this modality.