Detection of Differential Item Functioning in the Cornell Critical Thinking Test Between Turkish and United States Students

Sahin H., French B. F., Hand B., Gunel M.

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT, vol.31, no.4, pp.238-246, 2015 (SSCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 31 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2015
  • Doi Number: 10.1027/1015-5759/a000230
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.238-246
  • Keywords: critical thinking, Differential Item Functioning, test translation, I ERROR, DIF
  • TED University Affiliated: Yes


Critical thinking is a broad term that includes core elements such as reasoning, evaluating, and metacognition that should be transferred to students in educational systems. The integration of such skills into models of student success is increasing on an international scale. The Cornell Critical Thinking Test is an internationally used tool to assess critical thinking skills. However, limited validity evidence of the translated versions of the instrument exists to support the inferences based on the CCTT scores. This study examined the CCTT Turkish version. Specifically, translated items were examined for measurement equivalence by determining if items function differently across students from United States and Turkey. Differential Item Functioning (DIF) analysis via logistic regression was employed. Results demonstrated that each subtest contained DIF items and 10% of the items in the instrument were identified as DIF. Mean differences between students in each country were not influenced by these items. A critical content review of the translated item gave insight as to why items may be functioning differently.