This study analyzed the unique effects of gender and culture on psychopathology in adolescents from seven countries, after controlling for factors that might have contributed to variations in psychopathology. In a sample of 2259 adolescents (M = 15 years: 54% female) from France, Germany,Turkey, Greece, Peru, Pakistan, and Poland, we assessed identity development, maternal parenting (support, psychological control, anxious rearing), and psychopathology (internalizing, externalizing). Using an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), we analyzed country, sex, age, and the interaction country x sex as independent variables, while controlling for maternal rearing dimensions and identity development as covariates. This resulted in similar findings for internalizing and externalizing symptoms: Identity rumination and maternal rearing (support, psychological control, anxious rearing) proved to be significant covariates. Further, country, sex, age, and the interaction country x sex were significant.These analyses result in a clearer picture of culture- and gender-specific effects on psychopathology, which is helpful in designing interventions.