Time Invariant and Localized Secure Reception with Sequential Multi-Carrier Receive-FDA

Akkoc A., Korkmaz N. A., Genc Y., AFACAN E., Yazgan E.

IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol.71, no.9, pp.7064-7072, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 71 Issue: 9
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1109/tap.2023.3286025
  • Journal Name: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Applied Science & Technology Source, Business Source Elite, Business Source Premier, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, Computer & Applied Sciences, INSPEC, Metadex, zbMATH, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.7064-7072
  • Keywords: 3-D beam steering, antenna arrays, beam localization, dot-shaped beam, frequency diverse array (FDA) receiver, frequency diversity, positional modulation (PoM), time-invariant beam
  • TED University Affiliated: Yes


Secure communication in the physical layer (PHY) using frequency diverse array (FDA) antennas has become a prominent research topic in recent years due to the unique range-angle dependent beam pattern exhibited by FDAs. However, the time-varying and periodic nature of the FDA beam pattern prevents the achievement of a time-invariant range-angle focused beam pattern. Consequently, a range-angle focused beam is only achieved at a specific time instant. Therefore, it is not yet possible to focus a beam to a specific point or area in space permanently in a time-invariant manner, due to both natural propagation mechanisms and the independent time parameter. Once a wave is transmitted, time variation cannot be altered. Thus, for the FDA beam pattern, it continues to propagate over time indefinitely. However, in the case of receiving, the time parameter is under the control of the receiver. The receiver can set the time at which the incoming wave is sampled or acquired. In this study, a cross-linear array structure called the Sequential Multi-Carrier Receiver FDA (SMCR-FDA) and a relevant methodology are proposed to obtain a three-dimensionally localized time-invariant range-angle focused receive beam pattern. Additionally, several novel concepts, including the cross-linear array structure, the secure reception concept, and the Positional Modulation Technique are introduced.