This study aims at investigating the definitions, types and causes of child neglect and abuse, as well as their impacts on children, preventive efforts, and offers suggestions. Child neglect is the inhibition of a child's physical, psychological, moral or social development due to negligence on the part of the parents, caregivers or other adults to provide the basic essentials. Child abuse, in its broadest sense, is the child being intentionally exposed to circumstances, which result in the inhibition of his/her physical, sexual, economic or psychological development by parents, caregivers or other adults. Children who are exposed to neglect or abuse suffers from health problems, such as, psychological problems, developmental delay, depression, low self-esteem, aggressive behavior, poor academic and work performance, learning disorders, difficulties in peer relationships or criminal tendencies. In order to mitigate its impact, the causes of child neglect and abuse should be identified and preventive measures should be taken both governmentally and as a community.