© 2017, Ankara University. All rights reserved.The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between factors related to learning and teaching processes and mathematics literacy. The sample of this correlational study includes 4848 Turkish students. In this study, out-of-school learning time and learning time of mathematics are variables related to learning process. Teacher-student relation, teacher use of cognitive activation strategies, and disciplinary climate are variables related to teaching process. According to results of structural equation modelling analysis, negative relationship was found between out-of-school learning time and mathematics literacy while there was a positive relationship between teachers’ use of cognitive activation strategies and mathematics literacy. Furthermore, mathematics literacy was found to have a negative relationship with student-teacher relation, but a positive relationship with positive disciplinary climate. When student-teacher relations were supported by positive disciplinary climate, the relationship between the two variables improved. Therefore, the content of courses should be enhanced in a way that teachers’ classroom management skills are developed.