Turkish children's bender-gestalt test performance: A pilot study and preliminary norms

Özer N. S.

PERCEPTUAL AND MOTOR SKILLS, vol.105, no.3, pp.872-882, 2007 (SSCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 105 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2007
  • Doi Number: 10.2466/pms.105.7.872-882
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.872-882
  • TED University Affiliated: No


The present study was undertaken to provide preliminary data for norms on the Bender-Gestalt Test for 253 children ages 5 yr., 5 mo. to 11 yr., 10 mo. in Turkey. The Koppitz Developmental Scoring System gave mean error scores of 4.2 (SD=3.3) for girls and 3.6 (SD=3.0) for boys. The mean error scores obtained by all age groups are presented and compared with other cross-cultural data. These scores decreased across age groups, supporting Bender's maturational hypothesis of the test. The present sample performed at a higher developmental level than the Koppitz normative sample for the 5- and 6-year age groups, while means for other age groups were similar to the original U.S. norms. That this pattern is supported in other cross-cultural studies is discussed as well as the importance of developing local norms for visual spatial tests.