Codon optimization: a mathematical programing approach

Creative Commons License

Sen A., Kargar Mohammadi K., Akgun E., Pinar M. C.

BIOINFORMATICS, vol.36, no.13, pp.4012-4020, 2020 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 36 Issue: 13
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btaa248
  • Journal Name: BIOINFORMATICS
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.4012-4020
  • TED University Affiliated: No


Motivation: Synthesizing proteins in heterologous hosts is an important tool in biotechnology. However, the genetic code is degenerate and the codon usage is biased in many organisms. Synonymous codon changes that are customized for each host organism may have a significant effect on the level of protein expression. This effect can be measured by using metrics, such as codon adaptation index, codon pair bias, relative codon bias and relative codon pair bias. Codon optimization is designing codons that improve one or more of these objectives. Currently available algorithms and software solutions either rely on heuristics without providing optimality guarantees or are very rigid in modeling different objective functions and restrictions.