Aligning Teaching to Learning: A 3-Year Study Examining the Embedding of Language and Argumentation into Elementary Science Classrooms

Hand B., Norton-Meier L. A., Gunel M., AKKUŞ R.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS EDUCATION, vol.14, no.5, pp.847-863, 2016 (SSCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 14 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2016
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s10763-015-9622-9
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.847-863
  • Keywords: Argumentation, Argument-based inquiry, Elementary school science, Literacy practices in science, Science learning, Science writing heuristic, Teaching practices in science learning, LITERACY
  • TED University Affiliated: Yes


How can classrooms become communities of inquiry that connect intellectually challenging science content with language-based activities (opportunities to talk, listen, read, and write) especially in settings with diverse populations? This question guided a 3-year mixed-methods research study using the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach in cooperation with 2 universities, area education agencies, 6 school districts, 32 elementary teachers, and over 700 students each year. The participating teachers engaged in a yearly summer institute, planned units, implemented this curriculum in the classroom, and contributed to ongoing data collection and analysis. Findings demonstrate that critical embedded language opportunities contribute to an increase in student Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) scores in science and language based on level of implementation particularly for elementary students who receive free and reduced lunch (an indicator of living at the poverty level).